20201016, 19:44  #1 
Mar 2016
101100100_{2} Posts 
runtime for the calculation of a quadratic residue
A peaceful and pleasant day for you,
What is the runtime of the jacobi / legendre / kronecker function in order to determine wether x is a quadratic residue concerning the prime p. Is this function faster than fast exponentation ? I would like to calculate the function f(n)=2n²1 for increasing n to split the function term in primes and to determine jacobi (n, p) and jacobi (pn, p) Perhaps someone can give me a hint, Greetings from Euler, I think he was the first person who occupies with quadrac reciprocity. Bernhard Last fiddled with by bhelmes on 20201016 at 19:45 
20201017, 02:44  #2 
Aug 2002
Buenos Aires, Argentina
2×691 Posts 
Computing the Jacobi symbol is a lot faster than modular exponentiation.
This is the source code I wrote in C language based on Crandall's and Pomerance's Prime Number book: Code:
// Calculate Jacobi symbol by following algorithm 2.3.5 of C&P book. int JacobiSymbol(int upper, int lower) { int a = upper % lower; int m = lower; int t = 1; while (a != 0) { int tmp; while ((a & 1) == 0) { // a is even. a >>= 1; if ((m & 7) == 3  (m & 7) == 5) { // m = 3 or m = 5 (mod 8) t = t; } } tmp = a; a = m; m = tmp; // Exchange a and m. if ((a & m & 3) == 3) { // a = 3 and m = 3 (mod 4) t = t; } a = a % m; } if (m == 1  m == 1) { return t; } return 0; } 
20201017, 05:11  #3 
"Mihai Preda"
Apr 2015
1,373 Posts 
Apparently the complexity of jocobi symbol is the same as the GCD. For 100Mbits residues, GnuMP takes about 30s on CPU. (which is abouth the same time as a GCD).

20201017, 13:37  #4  
Feb 2017
Nowhere
1392_{16} Posts 
Quote:
The following pertains to the specific case at hand. Apart from the individual factors, we have kronecker(n,2*n^2  1) = 1, if 4n; 1, if n == 1 (mod 4); 1, if n == 2 (mod 4); and 1, if n == 3 (mod 4). Also, kronecker(pn,p) = kronecker(n,p) if p == 3 (mod 4); and kronecker(pn,p) = kronecker(n,p) if p == 1 (mod 4). 

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