- n.

- (儀式などの)定式文句
- (交渉・行動の前庭として定式化して示した)定則、基本原理
- (数・化学)式、公式(for)
- 歯式
- 法式、定式、定則(for)
- 製法、(薬)処方、処方薬。(解決などのための)一定の案(方式)。秘訣(for)
- 調合乳、フォーミュラ)(一定の処方によって作られた乳幼児用のミルク)

- a representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent elements (同)chemical_formula
- a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement (同)expression
- a conventionalized statement expressing some fundamental principle
- a liquid food for infants
- (genetics) the process of expressing a gene
- the feelings expressed on a person
*s face; "a sad expression"; "a look of triumph"; "an angry face" (同)look, aspect, facial_expression, face* - the act of forcing something out by squeezing or pressing; "the expression of milk from her breast"
- expression without words; "tears are an expression of grief"; "the pulse is a reflection of the heart
*s condition" (同)manifestation, reflection, reflexion* - the communication (in speech or writing) of your beliefs or opinions; "expressions of good will"; "he helped me find verbal expression for my ideas"; "the idea was immediate but the verbalism took hours" (同)verbal expression, verbalism
- verified officially; "the election returns are now official"
- a worker who holds or is invested with an office (同)functionary
- someone who administers the rules of a game or sport; "the golfer asked for an official who could give him a ruling"
- conforming to set usage, procedure, or discipline; "in prescribed order" (同)prescribed
- (of a church) given official status as a national or state institution
- having official authority or sanction; "official permission"; "an official representative"
- of or relating to an office; "official privileges"
- logically deductive; "formal proof"
- (of spoken and written language) adhering to traditional standards of correctness and without casual, contracted, and colloquial forms; "the paper was written in formal English"
- being in accord with established forms and conventions and requirements (as e.g. of formal dress); "pay one
*s formal respects"; "formal dress"; "a formal ball"; "the requirement was only formal and often ignored"; "a formal education"* - characteristic of or befitting a person in authority; "formal duties"; "an official banquet"
- the act of regarding as equal (同)equating
- a mathematical statement that two expressions are equal
- in a formal manner; "he was dressed rather formally"
- with official authorization; "the club will be formally recognized" (同)officially

- (あいさつなどの)『決まった言い方』;空虚な言葉 / (…の)習慣的なやり方,決まった方法《+『for』+『名』(do『ing』)》 / (…の)製法,調理法,処方せん《+『for』+『名』》 / (…の)『公式』,式《+『for』+『名』》
- 〈U〉〈C〉(思想・意見・考えなどを)『言葉で表すこと』,(…の)『表現』《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈C〉(考え・気持ちなどの)『現れ』,印《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈C〉(考え・気持ちなどを表す)『顔つき』,表情《+『of』+『名』》 / 〈U〉(考え・気持ちなどを表す)声の調子 / 〈C〉語句,言い回し,表現法 / 〈C〉(数量・運算などを示す)式
- 『公務』[『木』]『の』,職務[上]の / 『公式の』,正式の(formal);公認の / お役織式の / 『公務員』,役人(会社などの)『職員』,役員
- 『正式の』,公式の,本式の / 形式ばった;改まった / 形式的な,表面的な
- 等式; 方程式

出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』「2016/02/10 18:35:18」(JST)

For other uses, see Formula (disambiguation).

In science, a **formula** is a concise way of expressing information symbolically as in a mathematical or chemical formula. The informal use of the term * formula* in science refers to the general construct of a relationship between given quantities. The plural of

In mathematics, a formula is an entity constructed using the symbols and formation rules of a given logical language.^{[2]} For example, determining the volume of a sphere requires a significant amount of integral calculus or its geometrical analogue, the method of exhaustion;^{[3]} but, having done this once in terms of some parameter (the radius for example), mathematicians have produced a formula to describe the volume: This particular formula is:

Having obtained this result, and knowing the radius of any sphere in question, we can quickly and easily determine its volume. Note that the volume *V* and the radius *r* are expressed as single letters instead of words or phrases. This convention, while less important in a relatively simple formula, means that mathematicians can more quickly manipulate larger and more complex formulas.^{[4]} Mathematical formulas are often algebraic, closed form, and/or analytical.

In modern chemistry, a chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes other symbols, such as parentheses, brackets, and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.^{[5]} For example, H_{2}O is the chemical formula for water, specifying that each molecule consists of two hydrogen (H) atoms and one oxygen (O) atom. Similarly, O−

3 denotes an ozone molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms and having a net negative charge.

In a general context, formulas are applied to provide a mathematical solution for real world problems. Some may be general: **F** = *m***a**, which is one expression of Newton's second law, is applicable to a wide range of physical situations. Other formulas may be specially created to solve a particular problem; for example, using the equation of a sine curve to model the movement of the tides in a bay. In all cases, however, formulas form the basis for calculations.

Expressions are distinct from formulas in that they cannot contain an equals sign (=).^{[6]} Whereas formulas are comparable to sentences, expressions are more like phrases.

- 1 Chemical formulas
- 2 In computing
- 3 Formulas with prescribed units
- 3.1 In science

- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links

A chemical formula identifies each constituent element by its chemical symbol and indicates the proportionate number of atoms of each element.

In empirical formulas, these proportions begin with a key element and then assign numbers of atoms of the other elements in the compound, as ratios to the key element. For molecular compounds, these ratio numbers can all be expressed as whole numbers. For example, the empirical formula of ethanol may be written C_{2}H_{6}O because the molecules of ethanol all contain two carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. Some types of ionic compounds, however, cannot be written with entirely whole-number empirical formulas. An example is boron carbide, whose formula of CB_{n} is a variable non-whole number ratio with n ranging from over 4 to more than 6.5.

When the chemical compound of the formula consists of simple molecules, chemical formulas often employ ways to suggest the structure of the molecule. There are several types of these formulas, including **molecular formulas** and **condensed formulas**. A molecular formula enumerates the number of atoms to reflect those in the molecule, so that the molecular formula for glucose is C_{6}H_{12}O_{6} rather than the glucose empirical formula, which is CH_{2}O. Except for very simple substances, molecular chemical formulas lack needed structural information, and are ambiguous.

A structural formula is a drawing that shows the location of each atom, and which atoms it binds to.

In computing, a formula typically describes a calculation, such as addition, to be performed on one or more variables. A formula is often implicitly provided in the form of a computer instruction such as.

*Degrees Celsius*= (5/9)*(*Degrees Fahrenheit*- 32)

In computer spreadsheet software, a formula indicating how to compute the value of a cell, say *A3*, is written such as

*=A1+A2*

where *A1* and *A2* refer to other cells (column A, row 1 or 2) within the spreadsheet. This is a shortcut for the "paper" form *A3 = A1+A2* where *A3* is, by convention, omitted because the result is always stored in the cell itself and stating its name would be redundant.

A physical quantity can be expressed as the product of a number and a physical unit. A formula expresses a relationship between physical quantities. A necessary condition for a formula to be valid is that all terms have the same dimension, meaning every term in the formula could be potentially converted to contain the identical unit (or product of identical units).^{[7]}

In the example above, for the volume of a sphere, we may wish to compute with *r* = 2.0 cm, which yields

^{[8]}

There is vast educational training about retaining units in computations, and converting units to a desirable form, such as in units conversion by factor-label.

The vast majority of computations with measurements are done in computer programs with no facility for retaining a symbolic computation of the units. Only the numerical quantity is used in the computation. This requires that the universal formula be converted to a formula that is intended to be used only with prescribed units, meaning the numerical quantity is implicitly assumed to be multiplying a particular unit. The requirements about the prescribed units must be given to users of the input and the output of the formula.

For example, suppose the formula is to require that , where **tbsp** is the U.S. tablespoon (as seen in conversion of units) and VOL is the name for the number used by the computer. Similarly, the formula is to require . The derivation of the formula proceeds as:

Given that , the formula with prescribed units is

^{[9]}

The formula is not complete without words such as: "VOL is volume in **tbsp** and RAD is radius in **cm**". Other possible words are "VOL is the ratio of to **tbsp** and RAD is the ratio of to **cm**."

The formula with prescribed units could also appear with simple symbols, perhaps even the identical symbols as in the original dimensional formula:

and the accompanying words could be: "where V is volume (**tbsp**) and r is radius (**cm**)".

If the physical formula is not dimensionally homogeneous, and therefore erroneous, the falsehood becomes apparent in the impossibility to derive a formula with prescribed units. It would not be possible to derive a formula consisting only of numbers and dimensionless ratios.

Formulas used in science almost always require a choice of units.^{[10]} Formulas are used to express relationships between various quantities, such as temperature, mass, or charge in physics; supply, profit, or demand in economics; or a wide range of other quantities in other disciplines.

An example of a formula used in science is Boltzmann's entropy formula. In statistical thermodynamics, it is a probability equation relating the entropy *S* of an ideal gas to the quantity *W*, which is the number of microstates corresponding to a given macrostate:

- (1) S= k ln W

where *k* is Boltzmann's constant equal to 1.38062 x 10^{−23} joule/kelvin and *W* is the number of microstates consistent with the given macrostate.

- Formula editor
- Formula (mathematical logic)
- Formula unit
- Formulae of shapes
- Mathematical notation
- Symbol (chemical element)

**^**Oxford Dictionaries: formula.**^**Rautenberg, Wolfgang (2010),*A Concise Introduction to Mathematical Logic*(3rd ed.), New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media, doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1221-3, ISBN 978-1-4419-1220-6**^**Smith, David E (1958).*History of Mathematics*. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-20430-8.**^**"Why do mathematicians use single letter variables?".*math.stackexchange.com*. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2013.**^**Atkins, P.W., Overton, T., Rourke, J., Weller, M. and Armstrong, F.*Shriver and Atkins inorganic chemistry*(4th edition) 2006 (Oxford University Press) ISBN 0-19-926463-5**^**Hamilton, A.G. (1988),*Logic for Mathematicians*(2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-36865-0**^**Lindeburg, Michael R. (1998).*Engineering Unit Conversions, Fourth Edition*. Professional Publications. ISBN 159126099X.**^**To derive*V*~= 33.51 cm^{3}(2.045 cu in), then calculate the formula for volume: 4/3 × 3.1415926535897 × 2.0^{3}or ~= 33.51032163829 and round to 2 decimal digits.**^**To derive VOL ~= 0.2833 RAD^{3}, the**tbsp**is divided out as: 4/3 × 3.1415926535897 / 14.787 ~= 0.2832751879885 and rounded to 4 decimal digits.**^**Haynes, William M., ed. (2013) [1914].*CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 94th Edition*. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 1466571144.

Look up in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.formula |

- fxSolver: Online formula database and graphing calculator for mathematics,natural science and engineering.
- vCalc: A webpage with a user-modifiable equation and formula library.

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- 1. 乳児および幼児における経腸栄養 enteral nutrition in infants and children
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- Ni Y1, Eskeland GS2, Giske J3, Hansen JP4.
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- NaCl stress-induced transcriptomics analysis of Salix linearistipularis (syn. Salix mongolica).

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- Scientific reports 3, 1818, 2013-05-00
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- Simple formula for the interspaces of periodic grating structures self-organized on metal surfaces by femtosecond laser ablation

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- Applied Physics Letters 102(17), 2013-05-00
- … We find that the dependence of the grating interspaces on laser fluence can be explained by a simple formula for induction of a surface-plasma wave through the parametric decay of laser light. …
- NAID 120005245126

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リンク元 | 「expression」「処方箋」「式」「公式」「formulae」 |

拡張検索 | 「reaction formula」「floral formula」「flower formula」 |

- n.

- 関
- Eq.、equation、exert、express、facial expression、formula、formulae、level of expression、manifestation、represent、representation、representational

- 英
- prescription, formula, recipe Rp.
- ラ
- praescriptum
- 同
- レセプト
- 関
- 処方、医師法、保険医療機関及び保険医療養担当規則